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How Apache Pulsar Stores Data with BookKeeper and ZooKeeper

Apache Pulsar implements a streaming event architecture that can be used in a Software-Defined Data Center (SDDC) with Apache BookKeeper and ZooKeeper tools. 

Quick Summary:

  • In 2020, most enterprise cloud software development teams are deploying with AWS EC2, Kubernetes, and Microsoft Azure platform solutions.
  • Virtualization enables the use of distributed cloud hardware which separates the database, codebase, file storage, administration, and caching layers of a software application to different parts of a data center or across multiple data centers internationally for geo-locative load balancing of web/mobile traffic requests.
  • Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is used to route VMs in a data center together for complex orchestration in public, private, hybrid and multi-cloud networking constructs.

This article will discuss how Apache Pulsar implements BookKeeper to manage VM namespace configuration with SDN and uses ZooKeeper for web server function synchronization in clusters.

Apache Pulsar: Brokers, Clusters, Metadata, and Proxies

Apache Pulsar is one of the leading platforms for the streaming event and pub-sub messaging architecture used in deploying “Big Data” and hyperscale enterprise software applications. In the world’s largest social networking and ecommerce websites, like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Amazon, there are billions of events per minute generated by users of the platforms. Every time a user logs in, makes a status update, adds a product to the shopping cart, posts, or enters financial information, there are events generated that must be processed by the data center in relation to the database, file storage, CPU/GPU/TPU processing, custom displays, etc. Because of the difficulties of managing all of these events across distributed hardware in a data center at hyperscale, enterprise companies have increasingly adopted Apache Pulsar as the fundamental architecture for their cloud software production requirements to attain faster performance speed.

A Pulsar cluster is composed of three primary elements: a broker, a bookie, and a ZooKeeper agent. The broker is created by Apache Pulsar and includes software utilities that operate as a dispatcher, load balancer, managed ledger, BK client, global replicator, and cache. The global replicator is the elastic web server framework integration with services like AWS EC2, Kubernetes, or Azure stack. The bookie is operated by Apache BookKeeper and enables the SDN routing across all of the dynamic and static namespace elements. The bookie includes persistent storage of messages for optimized processing of events in relation to custom software requirements like search keywords, product queries, active container IP addresses, or registered user accounts. The ZooKeeper agent assists the synchronization of event and message storage across Pulsar clusters while in operation as part of the service mesh.

Pulsar clusters can be orchestrated on the basis of software client requirements, multi-tenancy, or geo-location. In client orchestration, the elements of the distributed architecture must be coordinated according to the custom code of the software with relation to the database, storage, APIs, file processing, etc. The automation of containers in SaaS products may entail the use of multiple databases and programming languages in assembling apps, for example with Java, Python, C++, and Go functions or remote cloud TPU/GPU processing using AI/ML/DL toolsets. High-Availability (HA) apps replicate database and web server elements on demand in clusters through data center automation that scales elastically to the level of web traffic according to the configuration of the VM-driven hardware for processing requests. Apache Pulsar manages this in clusters through the use of brokers, metadata, and proxies. The service mesh with Apache BookKeeper and ZooKeeper utilities optimizes the speed of event and messaging processing across all of the Pulsar clusters active in the network configuration on data center hardware.

Apache BookKeeper: Bookies, Cursors, Journals, and Ledgers

The Apache BookKeeper layer provides the most important functionality where Pulsar optimizes data center orchestration in automated frameworks. BookKeeper offers an object-oriented approach to event and message stream management through the use of log entries that keep a record of every I/O binary or API request. The streams of log entries for each user, keyword, or agent are compiled into ledgers. The bookies provide an indexing system for the ledgers which are custom-coded by the user or database agent request logs. Through this system, all of the ecommerce and social network messaging across hyperscale architecture can be routed in automation by software scripts using SDN principles for orchestration. Functionally, this is used for compiling software requests across distributed hardware units, managing compliance for regional web servers, and establishing geolocation-based load balancing in international data center locations for operations.

Apache ZooKeeper: Clusters, Nodes, Updates, and Watches

The Pulsar brokers run a REST API with an asynchronous TCP-IP connection for negotiating binary data transfers. Clusters combine multiple brokers, bookies, and ZooKeeper quorum files for the coordination of network configuration settings. Apache ZooKeeper is used to store the metadata for Pulsar clusters which includes the configuration for tenants, assigned namespace elements, and SDN routing addresses with aliases. The ZooKeeper agent manages configuration settings across a cluster as well as BookKeeper metadata across ledgers and brokers. The write-ahead log (WAL) functionality of BookKeeper leads to vastly superior processing times in event stream management on distributed hardware in hyperscale configurations. ZooKeeper also coordinates the usage of encryption across clusters in Kubernetes or AWS EC2 orchestration using proxy servers and internal TLS connections.

Distributed Architecture: Pulsar, BookKeeper, and ZooKeeper

The Apache Pulsar, BookKeeper, and ZooKeeper combination is the premier cloud orchestration framework for hyperscale ecommerce, AI/ML/DL, and social networking software programming requirements. The designation of SDN elements can be scripted and automated, allowing for complex Kubernetes, AWS EC2, and Microsoft Azure deployments in support of code. The use of virtualization and containers in distributed cloud architecture is based on elastic cluster automation with a service mesh for synchronization. The BookKeeper ledger system’s write-ahead log (WAL) optimizes I/O processing speed and data center hardware performance under the most demanding traffic conditions. Apache Pulsar provides an advanced system architecture for programmers to customize according to the support requirements of enterprise web/mobile applications in a public, private, hybrid, or multi-cloud environment.

Learn more about adopting Apache Pulsar as a Service for enterprise software development and devops teams at Pandio. We also offer consulting, security, and technical support services.

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